"Therapy, or analysis, is not only something that analysts do to patients; it is a process that goes on intermittently in our individual soul-searching, our attempts at understanding our complexities, the critical attacks, prescriptions, and encouragements we give ourselves. We are all in therapy all the time insofar as we are involved in soul-making."
- James Hillman, Re-visioning Psychology


James Hillman's Archetypal Psychology is inspired by Carl Jung, yet Hillman, in the spirit of Jung himself, moves beyond
him to develop a rich, complex, and poetic basis for a psychology of psyche as "soul." Hillman's writings are of the most innovative, provocative and insightful of any psychologist this century, including Freud himself. What makes Hillman's work so important is its emphasis on psychology as a way of seeing, a way of imaging, a way of envisioning being human. His work is truly originary and involves a radical "re-visioning" of psychology as a human science. Hillman's roots are mostly classical, but in the service of retrieving what has been lost to psychology and, thus, in the service of psychology's future disclosure of "psyche" or "soul." The power of Hillman's thought, however, has more to do with how he approaches phenomena rather than what he has to say about it. Soul-making is a method, a way of seeing, and this cannot be forgotten. Hillman's roots include Renaissance Humanism, the early Greeks, existentialism and phenomenology. His thought is rhetorical in the best sense of the word; thus, imaginative, literary, poetic, metaphorical, ingenius, and persuasive. If nothing else, one cannot read Hillman without being moved.

Hillman's work is "soul-making" and, in this sense, psychological (the "logos" of the "psyche") in the truest sense of
the word. Hillman listens to the saying of the soul, and it speaks in his writing through him. Of Hillman's use of the
term "soul," Thomas Moore writes:

"Hillman likes the word for a number of reasons. It eludes reductionistic definition: it expresses the mystery of
human life; and it connects psychology to religion, love, death, and destiny. It suggests depth, and Hillman sees
himself directly in the line of depth psychology, going all the way back to Heraclitus, who observed that one could
never discover the extent of the soul, no matter how many paths one traveled, so profound in its nature. Whenever
Hillman uses the forms psychology, psychologizing, and psychological, he intends a reference to depth and mystery."

For Hillman, "soul" is about multiplicity and ambiguity, and about being polytheistic; it belongs to the night-world
of dreams where the lines across the phenomenal field are not so clearly drawn. Soul pathologizes: "it gets us into
trouble," as Moore writes, "it interferes with the smooth running of life, it obstructs attempts to understand, and it
seems to make relationships impossible." While spirit seeks unity and harmony, soul is in the vales, the depths.

In his magnum opus, Re-Visioning Psychology, Hillman writes of "soul":

"By soul I mean, first of all, a perspective rather than a substance, a viewpoint toward things rather than a thing itself.
This perspective is reflective; it mediates events and makes differences between ourselves and everything that
happens. Between us and events, between the doer and the deed, there is a reflective moment -- and soul-making
means differentiating this middle ground.

It is as if consciousness rests upon a self-sustaining and imagining substrate -- an inner place or deeper person or
ongoing presence -- that is simply there even when all our subjectivity, ego, and consciousness go into eclipse. Soul
appears as a factor independent of the events in which we are immersed. Though I cannot identify soul with anything
else, I also can never grasp it apart from other things, perhaps because it is like a reflection in a flowing mirror, or like
the moon which mediates only borrowed light. But just this peculiar and paradoxical intervening variable gives on the
sense of having or being soul. However intangible and indefinable it is, soul carries highest importance in hierarchies
of human values, frequently being identified with the principle of life and even of divinity.

In another attempt upon the idea of soul I suggest that the word refers to that unknown component which makes
meaning possible, turns events into experiences, is communicated in love, and has a religious concern. These four
qualifications I had already put forth some years ago. I had begun to use the term freely, usually interchangeably with
psyche (from Greek) and anima (from Latin). Now I am adding three necessary modifications. First, soul refers to the
deepening of events into experiences; second, the significance of soul makes possible, whether in love or in religious
concern, derives from its special relation with death. And third, by soul I mean the imaginative possibility in our
natures, the experiencing through reflective speculation, dream, image, fantasy -- that mode which recognizes all
realities as primarily symbolic or metaphorical."


James Hillman Web Site (Has everything!)
Interview with James Hillman, on Force of Character (10/2/99)
"Archetypal Psychology," excerpts from The Cambridge Companion to Jung
Worldguide interview with Hillman
"Authenticity, Character, and Destiny": An Interview with James Hillman
James Hillman at Pacifica
Christine Nordstrand on Hillman
Archetypal Psychology
"Corporatism, Efficiency, and the Work of Imagination" by Larry Allums
"Hamlet and the Grief Counselors" by Larry Allums
"Against the Rules: Poetry, Form and Play" by Glenn Arbery
"Misfits, Complacencies, and the Gods of Violence" by Glenn Arbery
"James Hillman: The Thought of the Soul at Work" by Adriana Bottin
"Five Questions to James Hillman" by Fabio Botto
"James Hillman: From the Road of Soul-Making to the Re-Vision of Philosophy" by Fabio Botto
"Snakes and Ladders" by Erik Davis
"Calling Forth the Soul" by Tammie Byram Fowles
"The Opposition of 'Individual' and 'Collective' -- Psychology's Basic Fault" by Wolfgang Giegerich
"Reply to Greg Mogenson" by Wolfgang Giegerich
"Ontogeny = Phylogeny? A Fundamental Critique of Erich Neumann's Analytical Psychology" by Wolfgang Giegerich
Review of Wolfgang Giegerich's The Soul's Logical Life: Towards a Rigorous Notion of Psychology
"Rhetoric and Philosophy" by Ernesto Grassi
"Reflections on the Duende" by Rafael López-Pedraza
"A Stone Bridge North: The Meaning of an Ordinary Life" by Kate Maloy
"Doorways" by A. W. Metcalfe
"The Bricoleur in the Tennis Court: Pedagogy in Postmodern Context" by David L. Miller
"The Nose Knows Values: Character and the Daimonic Education" by David L. Miller
"Dilemmas in the Rhetoric of Assessment and Accountability" by David L. Miller
"Nothing Almost Sees Miracles! Self and No-Self in Psychology and Religion" by David L. Miller
"The Mythology of a Consumerist Culture" by David L. Miller
"The Fire is in the Mind" by David L. Miller
"The Legacy of Joseph Campbell to the Postmodern History of Religions" by David L. Miller
Interview with Thomas Moore at Amazon.com
Thomas Moore Interview
"Anxiety and Depression: A Philosophy Investigation" by Petra von Morstein
"The Knot between Ricoeur and Derrida: A Look at Rhetoric in the Human Sciences" by Rex Olson
"Rhetoric of the Masculine" by Marcus Quintaes
"Nous, Ananke and Eros" by Marcus Quintaes
"What Does 'Archetypal' Mean?" by Stanley Richards
"The Charms of Venus" by Stanley Richards
"Dark Angels" by Stanley Richards
"The Gardens of Maybe" by Stanley Richards
"You're Good for Me" by Stanley Richards
"Eros, Master of Perversity" by Stanley Richards
"The Troubadors and Courtly Love" by Stanley Richards
"The Myth of Normality" by Stanley Richards
"The Gates of Hades" by Stanley Richards
"Altered States" by Stanley Richards
"Spirit and Soul in the Therapeutic Relationship" by Brent Dean Robbins
"Archetypal Psychology" by Brent Dean Robbins
"Madness and Liberation: A Journey to Cader Idris" by Brent Dean Robbins
"The Psychotic Dr. Schreber: A Critique of Freud's Theory of Paranoia" by Brent Dean Robbins
"A Story of Children's Stories" by Brent Dean Robbins
"Review of Pathways into the Jungian World" by Brent Dean Robbins
"On the History of Rhetoric and Psychology" by Brent Dean Robbins
"The Image" by Brent Dean Robbins, Claire Cowan-Barbetti and Victor Barbetti
"Psychology is Useless; Or, It Should Be" by Robert Romanyshyn
"The Dream Body in Cyberspace" by Robert Romanyshyn
"Interview with Robert D. Romanyshyn, Part 1" by Dolores E. Brien
"Interview with Robert D. Romanyshyn, Part 2" by Dolores E. Brien
"Facing the World with Soul" (excerpt) by Robert Sardello
"Spiritual Psychology of Work" by Robert Sardello
"The Psychological in the Neighborhood of Thought and Poetry" by Michael Sipiora
"Doorways, Divestiture and the Eye of Wrath: Tracking an Archetype" by Evans Lansing Smith
"Approaching the Dream" by Barry Stephenson
"Opposing Selves--Roles and Masks" by Joanne Stroud
"Dreamages, A Primer" by Timothy Tate and Barrett Golding
The Divine at Play with Itself: Feng Shui with Feeling" by Gail Thomas
"Fairy Tale Education" by Frederick Turner
Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture
Soulful Psychotherapy
The Salt Journal
Green Street
Janus Head
New Perspectives
Soul Work: Cliff Bostock's site
James Hillman thesis by Marc Fonda
Archetypal Astrology
Jonathon Young's Mythic Realm
Alan Pert's Home Page
"The Imminent Renaissance and the Search for the Postmodern Odysseus" by Paul Firenze
Spring Publications
Ares Press
C. G. Jung Page

Recommended Readings

The Soul's Code : In Search of Character and Calling
by James Hillman
Our Price: $10.39

The Rag and Bone Shop of the Heart : Poems for Men
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The Force of Character : And the Lasting Life
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The City As Dwelling : Walking, Sitting, Shaping
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Kinds of Power : A Guide to Its Intelligent Uses
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We've Had a Hundred Years of Psychotherapy and the World's Getting Worse
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The Thought of the Heart and the Soul of the World
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Ecopsychology : Restoring the Earth, Healing the Mind
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A Blue Fire : Selected Writings
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Re-Visioning Psychology
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The Dream and the Underworld
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Suicide and the Soul
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Healing Fiction
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Anima : The Anatomy of a Personified Notion
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Insearch : Psychology and Religion
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Spring 56 (No 56. Issn 0362-0522.)
by James Hillman (Editor), Charles Boer (Editor)
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Spring 60 : A Journal of Archetype and Culture : Marriages (No 60. Issn 0362-0522.)
by James Hillman (Editor), Ginette Paris (Editor), Nor Hall (Editor), Pollack, Charles Boer (Editor), Jay Livernois (Editor)
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The Myth of Analysis : Three Essays in Archetypal Psychology
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Interviews : Conversations With Laura Pozzo on Psychotherapy, Biography, Love, Soul, Dreams, Work, Imagination, and the State of the Culture
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Archetypal Psychology : A Brief Account
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Haiti : Or the Psychology of Black (Spring, 61)
by James Hillman (Editor), Henry Hogarth, Judi Bertoia, Charles Boer (Editor)
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Working With Images : The Theoretical Base of Archetypal Psychology
by Benjamin Sells (Editor), James Hillman, Thomas Moore
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Oedipus Variations : Studies in Literature and Psychoanalysis
by Karl Kerenyi, James Hillman, Jon Solomon (Translator)
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Audio Cassettes

The Emptied Soul : The Psychopath in Everyone's Life
by Adolf Guggenbuhl-Craig, James Hillman
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Pink Madness : Why Does Aphrodite Drive Men Crazy With Pornography?
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